Jargon Buster

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Jargon has its place. Technical language can be a valuable form of shorthand, but only when everyone involved knows exactly and instantly what that jargon means.

Jargon wastes time and is counter productive if:

There are a number of reasons why jargon should be kept to a minimum. The most important of these, of course, is that jargon can exclude people from taking part. In the long-term, the result is less effective projects. People often feel intimidated to ask what a piece of jargon means.

Agreeing some simple ground rules for the way we all work, including meetings and written information, can help make sure that everyone can take part equally:

Jargon changes all the time and it will probably never go away. Indeed, in relation to regeneration funding there is some jargon we have to use. So this section looks at some of the jargon that is used most often, and explains what it means.

The programmes and definitions below refer to England unless otherwise stated.

A: B: C: D: E: F: G: H: I: J: K: L: M: N: O: P: Q: R: S: T: U: V: W: XYZ:

This jargon buster can be downloaded as a pdf file here (pdf format 262kb)


Active Citizenship:

Citizens taking opportunities to become actively involved in defining and tackling the problems of their communities and improving their quality of life. One of the three key elements of civil renewal. (See civil renewal, strengthened communities, partnership in meeting public needs, community engagement)
Active Communities:
Communities in which citizens are empowered to lead self-determined fulfilled lives, and in which everyone regardless of age, race or social background has a sense of belonging and a stake in society.
Acute Services:
General hospital services that treat people for specific conditions for a short time.
A way of measuring the benefits of an initiative, programme or project which highlights the changes brought about which wouldn't have occurred if the project hadn't taken place. This means that money has to be spent: To allow something to happen that otherwise would not take place (additional to existing plans for the area) or on projects for which the funding would not be available in the near future (allowing projects to happen sooner, bringing projects forward) or to improve the quality of existing projects.
Aims and objectives:
The result a project is intended to achieve, e.g. to create additional jobs for local people.
Association of Metropolitan Authorities
Anti Poverty Strategies (APS):
An attempt at a co-ordinated approach to tackling poverty including programmes to help people claim benefits, manage debt, have access to low interest small loans and better access to social work and housing services.
Association for Public Health
Area Based Initiatives (ABIs):
ABIs are publicly funded initiatives targeted on areas of social or economic disadvantage, which aim to improve the quality of life of residents and/or their future chances and those of their children.
Area Based Regeneration:
Government initiatives for reviving communities aimed at tackling all the problems in a neighbourhood rather than one or two aspects. The idea is to address physical, economic and social decline in the round rather than in isolation. http://www.rcu.gov.uk/abi/

Association for Public Health Observatories ( APHO):

Represents a network of 12 public health observatories (PHOs) working across the five nations of England , Scotland , Wales , Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland . We produce information, data and intelligence on people's health and health care for practitioners, policy makers and the wider community. Their expertise lies in turning information and data into meaningful health intelligence.

Area Investment Frameworks(AIFs):
Set out the regeneration priorities for an area with the aim of targeting funding from regional development agencies(see RDAs). AIFs are developed by partnerships of local and regional agencies.
Anti Social Behaviour Order

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Build Absolutely Nothing Anywhere Near Anyone
A measurement of the starting conditions, for example numbers unemployed, before a programme is undertaken. The benefits of a programme can be assessed over time by comparing the baseline with more up to date figures.
Beacon Councils:
A government scheme, which identifies excellence and innovation in local government. http://www.idea.gov.uk
A method used by public sector organisations, charities and private companies for gauging their performance by comparing it to the performance of other organisations, typically of a similar size.
Bending Main Programmes:
Tackling deprivation by focusing local agency and government department spending more specifically on the most deprived areas - see Mainstreaming.
Best Value:
Regime that aims to continuously improve local government performance through a programme of reviews and inspections. Councils must examine their services according to four guiding principles. They must challenge how, why and by whom s service is provided; compare its performance with that of other authorities, consult service users; and use competition `A framework, based on a set of nationally determined indicators to help local authorities measure, manage and improve their performance. http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1153899
Black and Minority Ethnic VCS:
The Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) VCS refers to independent, not-for-profit organisations run by, for and located within BME communities. The majority of BME groups are local and they include faith groups and refugee and asylum seeker organisations. The Black and Minority Ethnic VCS enables BME individuals to contribute to public life and supports the development of active thriving communities by providing opportunities for voluntary and community action.
Brownfield Land:
Land that has been built on before and is usually in an urban area. The land involved is often contaminated. Under a government target, 60% of all new development should be on Brownfield sites.
Building Communities Initiative:
An initiative, managed by Free Form Arts Trust, which encourages local communities to participate in housing regeneration projects. It is facilitated by Free Form Design Technical Services with the help of government funding. www.freeform.org.uk
Business Broker Schemes:
Local Strategic Partnerships are being invited to bid for these to assist businesses in maximising their contribution to Neighbourhood Renewal. Business in the Community and the British Chambers of Commerce are co-ordinating the project. http://www.neighbourhood.gov.uk/page.asp?id=696
Business Crime Direct:
Home Office project to assist business deal with crime, based in the various Chambers of Commerce, provide support to business and partnerships to develop projects to reduce business crime. Will provide security advice, help develop and implement projects
Business Improvement Districts (BID):
Government regeneration initiative that allows councils to raise extra money from local businesses through additional rates - but only if firms vote in favour of the move. The money is likely to be used for a specific project, such as cleaning up litter and graffiti in an inner city area, rather than general local authority spending.
Business in the Community (BITC):
Business-led initiative to encourage private sector involvement in supporting their local communities financially and practically. The organisation attempts to standardise reporting about business impact on communities and gives awards for best practice.

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see Comprehensive Area Assessment

 Call for Action:

A process for councillors to raise an issue causing concern to the community. This may be as a result of information from individual, community groups or their own observations. Using the ‘Call for Action', the councillors should be able to trigger a response from service providers.

All the resources available to an organisation. Includes people, money, equipment, expertise and information.
Capacity building:
Shorthand for a wide range of support, techniques and initiatives which aim build the capacity of individuals or organisations within communities to contribute effectively to regeneration projects. Sometimes related to building the infrastructure of the sector through umbrella bodies and networking groups.
Capital Funding:
Money spent on the purchase or improvement of fixed assets such as buildings, roads and equipment.
Confederation of British Industry
Chamber of Commerce:
Umbrella networking Organisation supporting and representing local business.
Children's Centres:
Children's centres will serve children and families in disadvantaged communities providing integrated care and education for young children. This integrated approach by children's centres will provide holistic support for children's development, support to families with young children and will facilitate the return to work of those parents who are currently unemployed.
CHIMP (Commission for Health Improvement):
A national body to support and oversee the quality of clinical governance and of clinical services, the Commission will visit all trusts in a rolling review programme to ensure that robust clinical governance arrangements are in place locally and that NICE guidance is consistently implemented throughout the NHS.
The government wants to encourage individuals, especially young people, to become 'good citizens', characterised by volunteering or community service. The government believes citizenship involves being informed, thoughtful and responsible citizens who are aware of their duties and rights. Citizenship programmes are now compulsory in secondary schools.
City Growth Strategy Initiative:
A scheme, piloted by the Small Business Service in four areas to encourage towns and cities to develop and implement inner city strategies which put enterprise and business at the heart of regeneration, focusing on the competitive advantages of inner city areas.
Civic participation or engagement:
People engaging through democratic processes such as signing a petition or contacting their local councillor.
Civil Renewal:
According to Government, it is about negotiating a new relationship between citizen and state, seeking to empower people to be active in furthering not only their own interests but those of other people in their community (whether a community of place or interest.)
Civil Renewal Unit:
Government body located at the Active Communities Directorate of the Home Office. Promotes awareness and practices that will help to increase citizens' active and democratic engagement in decisions or activities which affect their lives. Responsible for taking forward the Community Capacity Building Review.
Clean Money:
This phrase applies to European funding. Clean money is money that can be used as match funding because it is not from European sources. (See also dirty money).
See Department of Communities and Local Government
Closed-Circuit Television Initiative:
Jointly managed by the Home Office, the ODPM and the National Assembly for Wales, the Closed-Circuit Television Initiative aims to help local crime and disorder reduction partnerships deploy closed-circuit television (CCTV) in areas with significant crime and disorder problems.
The process of specifying , securing and monitoring services to meet people's needs at a strategic level.
A community is a specific group of people who all hold a something in common. Community has tended to be associated with two key aspects: firstly people who share locality or geographical place; secondly people who are communities of interest. Communities of interest are groups of people who share an identity for example Afro-Caribbean people; or who share an experience for example people with a particular disability.
Community Alliance:
A partnershiow with bassac, Community Matters and the Development Trusts Association. Their vision is to have a common anchor in every neighbourhood and provide a wide range of services and products aimed at supporting strong and sustainable anchor organisations
Community Anchors:
Independent community led organisations. They are multi-purpose and provide holistic solutions to local problems and challenges, bringing out the best in people and agencies.
Community Businesses:
Organisations which are established to provide services and/or employment in a local community. Their focus is about building the community and the local economy, but doing so in a business-like way as independent and self-supporting organisations.
Community Capacity Building:
Activities, resources and support that strengthen the skills and abilities of people and community groups to take effective action and leading roles in the development of their communities. (Building Civil Renewal: Government support for community capacity building proposals for change. Review findings from the Civil Renewal Unit).
Community Cohesion:
There is currently no universally accepted definition of this. However, at the moment, ideas include it being about the relationships between and within communities. It is also suggested that a cohesive community might be one in which there is a common vision and a sense of belonging for everyone in it. Also, that the diversity of people's different backgrounds and circumstances are appreciated and positively valued, and that people from different backgrounds have similar life opportunities.
Community Cohesion incorporates and goes beyond the concept of race equality and social inclusion. It describes a situation where:
* there is a common vision and a sense of belonging for all communities
* the diversity of people's different backgrounds and circumstances is appreciated and positively valued
* those from different backgrounds have similar life opportunities
* strong and positive relationships are being developed between people from different backgrounds in the workplace, in schools and within neighbourhoods
(Adapted from LGA Guidance Community Cohesion Unit)
Community Development:
The process of providing help and advice to communities to bring about social change and justice by working with them to identify their needs, plan their next steps, take action and evaluate the results, all in ways which challenge oppression and tackle inequalities.
(Adapted from the National Occupational Standards for Community Development Work)
Community Empowerment Action Plan:
Produced jointly by Communities and Local Government and Local Government Association. It sets out 23 actions that will deliver the Government's commitment to bring about greater devolution and empowered communities.
Community Empowerment Networks (CEN's):
Community Empowerment Networks were established to act as a link between the community and voluntary sectors and the Local Strategic Partnership in each of the 88 most deprived local authority areas in England. This is to help community and voluntary sector groups, particularly those that are marginalized, to get more involved in decisions concerning how public services are delivered in their area. They were set up by a lead organisation from within the sector using funding from the Neighbourhood Renewal Unit's Community Empowerment Fund. CEN's should provide a link between themselves and Local Strategic Partnerships, representing their members of LSP's. Neighbourhood Renewal Funding for CEN's came to an end in March 2006 and CEN's had to demonstrate their 'fitness for purpose' to access alternative funding.
Community Engagement:
The process of working collaboratively with and through groups of people affiliated by geographic proximity, special interest, or similar situations to address issues affecting the well being of those people. Please note this is a working definition and may differ from any definitions related to Home Office targets.
(Public Health Practice Program Office 'Principles of community engagement', 1997) The Public Health Program Office is part of the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services in the USA.
In the context of civil renewal, community engagement is the term for processes which help to build active and empowered communities. Its characteristics include enabling people to understand and exercise their powers and responsibilities as citizens, empowering them to organise through groups to work for their common good, and requiring public bodies to involve citizens in influencing and carrying out public services.
Community Enterprise:
A social enterprise or initiative run by a community. Community enterprises may trade, or have ambitions to trade, and often take place in areas of deprivation.
Community Legal Service Partnerships:
Local networks of providers of legal services, supported by co-ordinated funding and delivering services to local communities based on identified priority need.
Community Network:
Same as Community Empowerment Networks but not in one of the 88 most deprived areas.
Community Organisation Or Group:
A community organisation or group differs from a voluntary organisation in that the control lies in the hands of the beneficiaries as individual users, members or residents. Community groups or organisations tend to be smaller organisations with limited funding and no or very few staff however they cannot be defined in this way. There are some larger organisations that are community organisations such as some community centres, or residents' organisations by virtue of the fact they are for mutual benefit and are controlled by their members.
Community Participation Or Involvement:
Participation in any of three core activities - civic participation, informal volunteering and formal volunteering (see civic participation, informal volunteering, formal volunteering) (2001 Home Office Citizenship survey)
Community Planning:
The process where a local authority and partner organisations come together to plan, provide and promote the well being of their communities. It promotes the active involvement of communities in the decisions on local services, which affect people's lives including for example health, education, transport, the economy, safety and the environment.
Community Sector:
The web of personal relationships, groups, networks, traditions and patterns of behaviour that exist amongst those who share physical neighbourhoods, socio-economic conditions or common understandings and interests. It is the community itself taking action to get things done. The community sector ranges from small informal community groups to large multi-purpose community organisations. The community sector covers the entire range of policy and services. Its activities can range from nurseries and playgroups to community centres and village halls, from tenants' associations to environmental groups, from arts and sports groups to credit unions, and from self help groups to scout groups. (Compact Code of Good Practice on Community Groups)
Community Strategies/Sustainable Community Strategies
The plans which local authorities are now required to prepare for improving the economic, environmental and social well being of local areas and by which the councils are expected to co-ordinate the actions of the public, private voluntary and community organisations that operate locally. Since 2007 all Community Strategies have to address sustainability
The Compact was published in 1998. It is a framework for partnership between Government and the voluntary and community sector, for mutual advantage. An important principle in the Compact is the independence of the sector and its right to campaign. The Compact is supported by five Codes of Good Practice in which Government and the sector commit to particular actions.
For example, in the Consultation and Policy Appraisal Code, Government has pledged to allow a minimum of twelve weeks wherever possible in consultation, and the sector has pledged to ensure that the views of women and minority and socially excluded groups are included in their response. There are also Local Compact Guidelines to inform partnership working between voluntary and community sector organisations and local bodies such as local authorities, primary care trusts and local learning and skills councils.
Each local authority is expected to have a Local Compact involving all partner organisations on the LSP. See www.camdencompact.org.uk for details of Camden's Compact.
Comprehensive Spending Review (CSR):
Treasury review of public sector spending across Whitehall departments to examine productivity and plan expenditure over the medium term. Reviews take place every three years.
A Department of Education and Skills (DfES) initiative for young people aged 13 - 19 that offers access to information and advice on a wide range of topics including learning and careers. Builds on old careers service and work with early youth services.
Core funding:
Funding for the overhead costs of an organisation. In the past this has often been covered by grant funding from the Government however with the move to full cost recovery it is expected that core funding will increasingly be covered by service delivery contracts. (See full cost recovery, strategic funding)
Corporate community involvement:
The business sector interacting with its local community, usually through such schemes as employees volunteering, free professional help and advice, providing facilities such as meetings rooms to local community groups and gifts of office furniture.
Corporate social responsibility:
The responsibility businesses have to take account of their economic, social and environmental impacts, and act to address the key sustainable development challenges based on their core competencies wherever they operate locally, regionally and internationally.
Cost Benefit Analysis:
This is the process by which the benefits of a particular action are weighed up against its costs, usually to help assess the viability of the proposed action.
Councillors Commission:
Independent Commission on the role of local councillors. It is looking at the incentives and barriers to serving on councils, due to have reported to Ministers in December 2007
Creative Partnerships:
Organisations which provide a bridge between schools and cultural organisations, enabling every pupil to have the chance to work with creative professional and organisations to develop creative skills.
Creative Spaces Initiative:
A programme run by The Architectural Foundation. http://www.creativespaces.org.uk
Crime Concern:
A national crime reduction organisation and registered charity which provides advice and help to a wide range of professional and voluntary agencies to support their work in reducing crime and the fear of crime within local communities and runs over 60 projects across England and Wales. http://www.crimeconcern.org.uk
Cross Cutting Theme:
A subject or topic that flows to an appropriate level through all activities funded by the Objective One Programme.
Comprehensive Spending Review
Crime Reduction Partnerships:
Statutory partnerships formed as a consequence of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998, which required the Police and local authorities and others to work together to tackle crime and disorder within a local authority area. http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk
Crime Reduction Programme:
A Government funded programme which consists of a series of diverse initiatives which have been shown to be effective at reducing crime or the fear of crime.

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A way of measuring the benefits of a programme which identifies the things that would have occurred anyway without the intervention of the programme (see additionality)
Delegation levels:
The levels which determine who within an organisation is authorised to make certain decisions.
Delivery Plan:
A plan that sets out what a project or programme intends to achieve, when, where and at what cost.
Regeneration experts claim that one of the keys to improving the quality of Britain's towns and cities is to increase the number of homes on one patch of land. That's increasing the density.
Department of Communities and Local Government:
Previously called the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister - has responsibility for areas such as: local government, housing, planning, community cohesion, empowerment and regeneration.
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Department for Education and Skills
Deprivation/ Multiple:
Deprivation ward and local authority indicators of six aspects of deprivation: income, employment, health, deprivation and disability, education, skills and training, housing and geographical access to services.
Development Funding:
This is an investment in the capacity of voluntary and community organisations. It can be used to develop organisations from those sub-sectors that tend to have limited access to Government funds, for example, Black and Minority Ethnic organisations. There are particular periods in the lives of some voluntary and community organisations when they require funding to enable them to grow and develop in a particular direction. This may, for example, be because there have been changes in the external environment which provide opportunities for growth that cannot be taken until the organisation has itself increased its capacity. (See Strategic Funding and Project Funding)
Development Trusts:
A network of independent, not-for-profit, community-based organistions which are engaged in the economic, environmental & social regeneration of a defined area or community. www.dta.org.uk
Directly Elected Mayor:
Powerful council leader chosen by the public rather than other councillors. Has wide ranging powers over the day-to-day running of a council, but still needs to pass his or her policies through full council.
Dirty Money:
This phrase applies to European funding. Dirty money is money that cannot be used as match funding. This may be because it is European sources or because it is already being counted as match for other funding. (See also clean money)
Describes, for example, a young person who chooses not to be part of the education system or society as a whole.
The process of removing or denying an individual or community access to knowledge, rights or influence etc. It may be a deliberate process undertaken to exercise control or the side effect of policy implementation.
Discount rate:
The annual percentage rate at which the value of money reduces over time to give a present day value.
The extent to which the effects of a project impact - positively or negatively - on surrounding areas
Derelict Land Grant.
Department of Health
Duty to Co-operate:
All 'best value authorities', which includes police, health services, fire services, district councils and other public sector bodies, are now required to co-operate with the unitary or county council in producing the LAA. This duty does not cover the voluntary and community sector as it is not possible to pass a law requiring something from a non-public sector body.
Duty to Involve:
A new requirement placed on local authorities through the 2007 Local Government Act, to 'inform, consult and involve' local people in decisions about their area, particularly the Sustainable Community Strategy
Drug & Alcohol Action Team:
DAATs exist in each Local Authority area and provide a strategic lead in reducing drug and alcohol misuse.
Department for Trade and Industry.
Department of Work and Pensions

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Early Excellence Centres:
Local centres which offer models of good practice in early years education in deprived areas
E Commerce:
Electronic Commerce, is defined as any business process carried out over an electronic network, such as exchanging data files, having a website, using other companies' websites or buying and selling goods on-line. The basic exchange of text-based e-mail (without attachments) does not qualify as electronic commerce.
E- Government (Electronic Government):
Government information available via the Internet and other new technologies such as digital television, mobile phones and call centres. The government has set up a project that aims to make government central and local more accessible to communities particularly deprived communities. The government wants as many services as possible available electronically by 2005.
see Equalities and Human Rights Commission
Employee Volunteering And Employer Supported Volunteering:
Volunteering through an employer supported scheme. This can include a wide range of ad-hoc and regular volunteering, usually for a voluntary and community organisation. Employers usually provide additional time off for staff to volunteer and in some cases will match fund staff fundraising initiatives.
Employment Zones:
Areas where additional money is available to help the long term unemployed into work. www.dfee.gov.uk/employmentzones
Enabling people to take responsibility for themselves and helping them to make decisions about their own lives.
Enabling State:
The phrase used to describe the process whereby responsibility for delivering public services traditionally provided by the state is passed to private and voluntary organisations (or arms length government agencies). Underpinning this is the idea that smaller, local and specialist providers are more effective and efficient at delivering publicly funded services than large centralised bureaucracies (such as the NHS).
Engines of Change:
This phrase is often used to describe key projects that will help improve things. That is, projects that will help to drive forward changes in area, allowing lots of other changes to follow.
English Cities Fund - ECF:
A scheme aimed at attracting private sector funds into neglected cities. ECF is a partnership between English Partnerships, developer AMEC and investors Legal & General. www.englishcitiesfund.co.uk/
English Partnerships:
The key delivery agency in the government's new 'living communities' agenda to regenerate our towns, cities and rural areas. www.englishpartnerships.co.uk/
Environmental Impact:
The potential effects upon the environment of developments, purchases or training which should be assessed during the project development stage to ensure these impacts are minimised.
Equalities and Human Rights Commission:
A non departmental public body established under the Equality Act 2006, bringing together the Disability Rights Commission, Equl Opportunities Commission and the Commission for Racial Equality. The aim of the EHRC is to eliminate discrimination, reduce inequality, protect human rights and ensure that everyone has a fair chance to participate in society.
Equal Opportunities:
Equal opportunities, social exclusion and accessibility are all issues that are linked. Sometimes people are treated differently or unfairly for no real reason than, for example their race, gender, disability, age, sexuality or where they live. This is called 'discrimination'. Equal opportunities are about making sure people are judged on their skills. It is also about being aware of, dealing with, the things, or 'barriers', that might stop people from, for example, using services or getting a job. All funders will want to see that groups work in a way that promotes equal opportunities.
European Union. Established by Treaties of Maastricht and Amsterdam and created new areas of co-operation and co-ordination between member states, additional to those of the former European Community.
ERDF: European Regional Development Fund:
an EC structural fund which aims to reduce inequalities in socio-economic development between the regions in the Community, by supporting infrastructure projects, job-creation investments, local development and aid for SMEs. europa.eu.int/comm/regional_policy/funds/prord/prord_en.htm
ESF: European Social Fund:
supports activities that develop employability and human resources in five key areas: active labour market policies; equal opportunities; improving training and education and promoting lifelong learning; adaptability and entrepreneurship; improving the participation of women in the labour market. europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/esf2000/index-en.htm
An assessment, after a project or programme has started, of the extent to which objectives have been achieved, how efficiently they have been achieved, and whether there are any lessons to be gained for the future
Excellence in Cities:
A programme to drive up standards in schools in 47 areas of England. www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/excellence
Exit Strategy:
The plan for what happens to a project or a programme after the current funding comes to an end. Exit strategies are concerned with all aspects of the long-term survival of the project or scheme and may include a fundraising strategy or business plan. Also known as a forward strategy. See also sustainability.

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F & Fs:
Freedoms & Flexibilities
Family Service Units:
A charity working with families in need with 19 family service units in inner cities in England and Scotland. www.fsu.org.uk
Federation of Small Businesses:
The UK's leading lobbying and benefits group for small businesses providing information concerning the key issues facing the small business sector today. It has over 185,000 members with principal offices in London. Glasgow, Blackpool, Cardiff and Belfast.
Further Education
Floor Targets:
Deprivation will be tackled through the bending of main Departmental programmes such as the police and health services, to focus more specifically on the most deprived areas. Departments now have minimum targets to meet, which means that, for the first time, they will be judged on the areas where they are doing worst, and not just on averages. www.neighbourhood.gov.uk/page.asp?id=21
Formal Volunteering:
Giving unpaid help through groups, clubs or organisations to benefit other people or the environment. (2001 Home Office Citizenship survey)
Forward Strategy:
Arrangements which will continue the process of renewal and development after funding from the renewal programme stops. It is sometimes called an exit, continuation or succession strategy.
A place that provides homes, training and work opportunities for homeless young people. www.foyer.net
Full Cost Recovery:
Service providers including the relevant element of overheads in their cost estimates for providing a given service under service agreement or contract.

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Gap funding:
The main vehicle by which the government hopes to encourage developers to build on brownfield sites by providing aid for private companies to help them redevelop contaminated, derelict and disused sites that might not otherwise be profitable
Government Offices for the Regions:
There are nine Government Offices, each working with regional partners and local people to help deliver the governments key aims at regional level. www.gos.gov.uk/national/
Green Belt:
Planning restriction that applies to the countryside around towns and cities to prevent new building taking place.
Greenfield Site:
Land where there as been no previous development.
A charity supporting regeneration through practical environmental work in deprived areas. www.groundwork.org.uk

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HCHS (Hospital and Community Health Services):
All the services provided from hospitals and PCTs (such as operations, out-patient services, community and district nursing.
HDA ( Health Development Agency):
Formerly Health Education Authority
Health Improvement And Modernisation Programme
Health Living Centres:
the Healthy Living Centre initiative is managed by the New Opportunities Fund NOF). The programme targets areas and groups that represent the most disadvantaged sectors of the population. HLCs are expected to seek to influence the wider determinants of health, such as social exclusion, poor access to services, and social and economic aspects of deprivation, which can contribute to inequalities in health. www.dh.gov.uk/PolicyAndGuidance/HealthAndSocialCareTopics/HealthyLiving/HealthyLivingGeneralInformation/fs/en
Healthy Workplace Initiative
Home Zones:
Residential streets in which the road space is shared between drivers and other road users, with the wider needs of residents being accommodated. They are about promoting quality of life and neighbourliness. www.local-transport.dft.gov.uk/hzone
Housing Action Trusts:
Six Government agencies set up to regenerate some of the most deprived local authority estates in England. www.housing.odpm.gov.uk/local/hat/index.htm
Housing Associations:
Not for profit organisations providing home mainly to those in housing need. Many housing associations have also diversified into other areas including market rented housing, student housing, social care and shared ownership. Housing associations need to register with the Housing Corporation to qualify for grants to build new homes and are therefore often given the official title of Registered Social Landlord or RSL.
Housing Corporation:
The Government body that regulates and funds housing associations in England. www.housingcorp.gov.uk/
Housing Management Renewal Areas:
Bring together local authorities and other agencies in areas where the housing market is thought to be failing.
Human Neighbourhood Project:
Run by the Human City Institute. Project workers support local groups in planning, creating and acting to get their own project underway.
HQI (Housing Quality Indicators:
These are a comprehensive set of measures used to evaluate existing and planned housing developments on the basis of quality as opposed to simply cost. The indicators cover the location, the design and the performance (the likely life and adaptability) of the housing project. Using the indicators a housing project can be scored and its quality measured.

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ICT Stands for 'Information and Communication Technology'. It replaces IT (Information Technology) in describing the many different ways that now exist of communicating with other people. That includes computers, telecommunications (telephones etc.), Internet and Intranet. The Internet gives you a link with other people around the world using a computer and phone line, through E-mail and the World Wide Web. An Intranet is an 'internal network', usually within one company, that uses computers that are linked together.
Improvement and Development Agency – have very useful website which you can register on for free.
Improvement and Development Agency (IdeA):
Works with government organisations, voluntary groups, businesses and professionals to explore and develop good practice in all aspects of local government. Provides resources, workshops, consultation and expertise to support government initiatives such as local strategic partnerships and best value. Have very useful website which you can register on for free.
Index of Deprivation:
An official measure used by the government to target regeneration policies to the most deprived areas.
Informal Volunteering :
Giving unpaid help as an individual to others who are not members of the family. (2001 Home Office Citizenship survey)
Intermediate Labour Markets (ILM):
For people who have been unemployed for a long time there are many barriers to getting a job. Intermediate labour market projects aim to bridge this gap. They help people get over these barriers between long-term unemployment and getting back into the job market. ILM projects take on long-term unemployed people as paid staff, working to a time-limited contract (normally 12 months). During their time with the ILM, they are employees, not trainees. They are, however, given training and support that will help them get a job in the open labour market when their contract is completed. This is also referred to as 'protected employment'. ILM projects also focus on 'socially useful' work that benefits the local community. The quality of work experience and support means that ILM projects have a very high success rate in helping people into permanent jobs.
This is the basic framework needed for a project to happen. Infrastructure includes the large, like roads and buildings, to the small, like a local support worker.
Initiative for a Competitive Inner City (ICIC):
A US not-for-profit organisation founded in 1994 by Harvard Business School Professor Michael Porter. It is helping the government in England develop inner city growth strategies. www.icic.org

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Job Centre Plus
Joined Up Working:
When organisations such as councils, hospitals and schools work together to identify and solve local problems. The government has pushed this idea as a means of closing the gaps between public services and improving overall performance.


Key Indicators

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The extent to which the activity proposed benefits people outside the target area or group.
Learning and Skills Council:
The Government agency now responsible for adult training in England. www.lsc.gov.uk/
The additional money that a programme causes others to contribute.
Life long learning:
The continuous development of skills and knowledge to enhance quality of life and employment prospects. www.lifelonglearning.co.uk/
See Local Involvement Networks
Local Area Agreement (LAA):
The key aim of LAAs is to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the way Government works with local authorities, and their delivery partners, to improve public services.Negotiations will set three year targets, reviewed each year as part of an annual review process to ensure that LAAs reflect local and national priorities. If local circumstances suggest setting initial targets of a different length this is something that can be discussed during the negotiations. LAA's areas key to developing sustainable communities, which embody the principles of sustainable development.
Locality Budgeting:
The process of developing and co-ordinating budgets between all government organisations relevant to community and neighbourhood needs in a particular area.
London Development Agency:
London Development Agency, the body responsible to central Government for the funding and delivery of a range of regeneration activity including SRB and the development of sites for investment. www.lda.gov.uk/regeneration.asp
Local Delivery Plans (LDP):
Under the new three year planning framework for health and social care (See PPF), LDPs will show how the NHS, working with social services and other partners, will make visible improvements in health, including a reduction in health inequalities, and expand and reform services over the next three years. LDPs will be produced by Strategic Health Authorities and informed by PCT led local plans
Local Government Act 1999:
Legislation that introduced the best value service improvement and inspection system. Placed a duty on councils to continuously improve their services.
Local Government Act 2000:
Legislation that introduced directly elected mayors and cabinet style government, largely scrapping the old committee system. Also brought in a new, more flexible legal framework for local government allowing councils to take actions to increase the social, economic or environmental well-being of local people.
Local Government Association:
Organisation that represents around 400 councils in England and Wales. Lobbies on behalf of its members and provides advice on policy.
Local Involvement Networks:
Introduced on 1 April 2008 when Patient and Public Involvement Forums were discontinued. A LINk gives people a stronger voice in how their health and social care services are delivered. LINks are independent networks of local people and groups. LINks find out what local people want, investigate issues and use their powers to hold services to account
Localism (Or New Localism):
Localism is making services more locally accountable, devolving more power to local communities and, in the process, forging a modern relationship between the state, citizens and services(Speech by Rt Hon Alan Milburn MP 'Localism: The need for a new settlement', DEMOS seminar, 21 January 2004).
There are three main elements that provide the foundation for new localism:
* providing national standards and accountability for high quality services
* devolving power to councils and giving additional freedom to meet local needs, and
* building capacity at local level to deliver better services and provide effective community leadership.
(Adapted from a speech by Rt Hon Nick Raynsford MP ODPM 'New localism: making a reality of the myth', 17 March 2003).
Local Public Service Agreement:
Agreements between individual local authorities and the Government setting out the authority's commitment to deliver specific improvements in performance, and the Government's commitment to reward these improvements. The agreement also records what the Government will do to help the authority achieve the improved performance. www.local-regions.odpm.gov.uk/lpsa/index.htm
Local Strategic Partnerships:
A Local Strategic Partnership (LSP) is a single non-statutory, multi-agency body, which matches local authority boundaries, and aims to bring together at a local level the different parts of the public, private, community and voluntary sectors. LSPs are key to tackling deep seated, multi-faceted problems, requiring a range of responses from different bodies. Local partners working through a LSP will be expected to take many of the major decisions about priorities and funding for their local area. (Neighbourhood Renewal Unit www.neighbourhood.gov.uk/page.asp?id=531)
Longitudinal Funding:
This refers to grants, or other financial resources, provided over a long period of time, usually for the lifetime of a project. This funding will be agreed before a project starts. Longitudinal funding means there is no need to make annual bids for funding. This enables groups to plan projects better, so that money can be used better too.

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Realigning the allocation of mainstream resources - such as the police and health services - to better target the most deprived areas. www.neighbourhood.gov.uk/page.asp?id=11
Market failure:
A situation where barriers prevent the normal and efficient operation of a local economy. These may be information barriers, where local people don't know about job vacancies nearby, or the negative impact which high crime levels have on firms and workers locating to a particular area.
Micro Business:
Business employing 1-5 employees.
Key events with dates, marking stages in the progress of a project or programme.
Regular collection and analysis of input, output and outcome data, along with information concerning the problems being tackled.
The additional or second level effects of a programme.

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National Health Service (NHS) Trusts:
NHS Trusts provide most NHS services, through contracts with Primary Care Trusts. They are managed by a board of a lay chairman, non-executive directors and executive directors (the senior staff of the Trust). A NHS Trust may run one or several hospitals with an annual income of over £100 million a year. Ambulance Trusts run the emergency and routine ambulance transport services under contracts with purchasers. Acute trusts run the district and specialist hospital services.
National Improvement and Efficiency Strategy:
A soon to be published plan from CLG setting out the Government's expectations for improvements in local government. Each region has a Regional Improvement Partnership that are responsible for developing their own Regional Improvement Strategy. Community engagement is likely to be a key theme in the Strategy.
National Institute for Clinical Excellence(NICE):
A national body created in 1999as part of the health service reforms ‘to ensure every NHS patient gets fair access to quality treatment’. It aims to set clear national standards of what patients can expect to receive from the NHS. It promotes clinical and cost effectiveness through guidance and audit to support front line staff.
National Public Health Network
The Government's approach to regeneration attempts to target deprived areas as defined by local people rather than administrative boundaries.
Neighbourhood action planning:
Neighbourhood action planning is when partners/groups etc. involved in developing plans for a neighbourhood get together to devise their formal action plan, with help from public bodies, agencies etc. A residents' consultancy can help with this and their advice will help to shape the action plan. (See residents' consultancy).
Neighbourhood Management Programme:
A way of encouraging stakeholders to work with service providers to help improve the quality of services delivered in deprived neighbourhoods. www.neighbourhood.gov.uk/page.asp?id=577
Neighbourhood Partnerships:
This term refers to the range of community-based partnerships across Camden which operate at ward level
Neighbourhood Support Fund:
Government grants of £10,000 upwards to community groups to enable them to re-engage disaffected young people. www.dfes.gov.uk/nsf/
Neighbourhood Wardens:
A Neighbourhood Warden provides a uniformed, semi-official presence in a residential area with the aim of improving quality of life. Wardens can promote community safety, assist with environmental improvements and housing management, and also contribute to community development. They may patrol, provide concierge duties or act as 'super caretakers' and support vulnerable residents. www.neighbourhood.gov.uk/page.asp?id=561
New Deal for Communities:
A Government programme to regenerate 39 very deprived areas across England over a ten-year period. www.neighbourhood.gov.uk/page.asp?id=617
New Local Area Agreements:
The 2007 Local Government Act made LAA's statutory (local authorities are now legally required to have an LAA). the LAA sets out the action that a local authority and other LSP partners will undertake to achieve the goals in the Sustainable Community Strategy
New Opportunities Fund (NOF):
One of the National Lottery funds granting awards to health, education and the environment projects. www.nof.org.uk
An acronym for 'not in my back yard', used when discussing planning issues particularly the development of new social housing. The term is used to define the opposition of residents who are against new developments that will (in their eyes) devalue their properties.
Non-Government Organisations (NGO):
Used mainly in the UK to refer to campaigning organisations that have an interest in making clear their integrity from government. In Europe and other countries used to identify voluntary sector organisations.

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Option appraisal:
The process of narrowing down a range of options to identify the particular projects to be undertaken.
Out of Town Developments:
Practice of building new retails and leisure facilities in locations outside traditional community centres.
Outputs and Outcomes:
Outputs measure what was directly produced by the regeneration programme, such as additional training places or more houses. Outcomes measure the longer term changes in an area that were brought about by the regeneration programme.
This is often used to describe the link between a project and local people. 'Local ownership' of a project is where local people feel they have control and influence over a project. That a project is something that meets needs they have identified themselves.

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Participatory Budgeting:
A method for citizens to decide how (public) funds should be spent. Pioneered in Brazil, it has become increasingly popular in the UK. The Participatory Budgeting Unit, based in Manchester, supports and promotes the use of PB.
Partnership Investment Programme:
A scheme of public sector support for reclamation of brownfield land. www.urban.odpm.gov.uk/whitepaper/progs/altpip.htm
Partnerships vary greatly in how they are established and resourced and how they operate. There are no defining features for partnerships but they should bring together representatives from different sectors and different communities of interest to agree and work towards common goals. Organisations which bring together representatives of those who have an interest in the local area such as local authorities, health trusts, businesses, voluntary organisations, and residents groups.
Partnership In Meeting Public Needs:
Public bodies' involvement of citizens and communities, within the established democratic framework, in improving the planning and delivery of public services. One of the three key elements of civil renewal. (See civil renewal, active citizenship, strengthened communities).
Patient Advice and Liaison Service (PALS):
Provide: confidential advice and support to families and their carers, information on the NHS and health related matters, confidential assistance in resolving problems and concerns quickly, explanations of complaints procedures and how to get in touch with someone who can help, and information on how you can get more involved in your own healthcare.
Each Hospital Trust and Primary Care Trust has its own PALS as well as the Amblunace Trust, Acute Trust, Care Trust and Mental Health Trust
Performance Indicator:
This term refers to a range of measures, which can be used to assess how successful a project, or programme is in delivering its original aims.
The provision of funding or other forms of practical support, without requiring anything in return. Philanthropy is based on the concept of selfless giving and the desire to do good for society.
Poverty/Poverty trap:
There is no single definition of poverty in Britain however the most widely used indicators defines households whose net family income is less than 60% of the national average, as in poverty. Poverty trap refers to the state of being stuck in poverty.
Primary Care:
Care provided by GPs, and the team who work with them in their surgeries /health centres, and by dentists, pharmacists and opticians. The team most closely linked with the work of the GP includes the health visitors, district nurses, midwives and mental health nurses who are employed by a community NHS Trusts. Practice nurses are employed by GPs.
Primary Care Trusts (PCTs):
The PCTs’ forerunner the Primary Care Groups (PCGs) were introduced in ‘the New NHS Modern and Dependable’ (1997) bringing together groups of family doctors, community nurses, social services and lay members to commission acute and community health services. As they developed they merged with community trusts so they now provide community and primary health care services as well as commission acute services. PCTs typically cover about 100,000 patients. They are responsible for the local Health Improvement and Modernisation Programme and have a budget reflecting their populations’ share of the available resources for almost all local health care needs. They assess the needs of the local population and determine local targets and standards to improve quality and efficiency.
Principles of Third Sector Representation on LSPs:
The Local Government White Paper committed the Government to producing standards for how the Third Sector should represent itself on LSPs. The Principles, developed jointly by Third Sector representatives and civil servants, will set out the expectations that Third Sector representatives will follow in their roles on LSPs.
Priorities and Planning Framework (PPF):
The PPF guidance 2003 – 06 (Improvement, Expansion and Reform: the Next 3 Years) sets out the national priorities and targets for health and social care that will need to be built into local planning over a three year planning cycle. A copy of the guidance is available at: www.dh.gov.uk
Private Financial Initiative (PFI):
A method of providing new public buildings and projects such as schools, hospitals, roads and homes by using private sector money up front that is later repaid with interest by the state.
Procurement is the full range of activities related to purchasing goods, servicea and works. All City of London services involve procurement. Procurement can range from contracting for an entire service to purchasing small assets such as office equipment. The procurement process does not end at the commissioning contract award stage, but spans the entire life cycle of the product or service from inception and design through to contract management and disposal of any redundant assets.
The individual components or elements of an overall programme or scheme.
Project appraisal:
The assessment of particular projects to make sure that they provide value for money and that they will tackle the problem to be addressed.
Project funding:
Funding to meet the cost of a specific piece of work or activity for an agreed period of time, often longer than a single year. It can include an element of overhead costs (where these have not been met by funding from another source) or those overhead costs that have increased because of the particular piece of funded work. This approach requires voluntary and community organisations to be much more explicit about the nature of their overhead costs and their apportionment in order to avoid the prospect of double funding. It also enables the funder to exit from the arrangement without the risk of capsizing the whole organisation at the same time. (See Development Funding and Strategic Funding).
Public Interest Company (PIC):
Organisations usually set up to deliver a public service with public money, but run along the lines of a business with operational independence from Whitehall.
Public Private Partnerships:
Where an organisation, such as a council or government department, strikes a deal that allows the private sector to deliver a public service.
Public Request to Order Disposal (PROD):
PROD's are very useful, but little used, legal power that anybody can use to force the sale of publicly owned empty homes or abandoned land in England and Wales
Public Services:
Services that are wholly or partly funded through taxation. They include national, regional and local government and statutory agencies.
Public Service Agreements (PSAs): (see Floor Targets)
Local PSAs were designed as voluntary agreements between upper tier local authorities and government and were piloted with 20 authorities starting in late 2000. This pilot was well received and a rollout to all upper tier authorities began in September 2001. 144 were signed and the last of these agreements ended in March 2007

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Quality of Life Indicators:
Indicators used by the Government to measure social, economic and environmental wellbeing. They cover areas such as housing, health, jobs, air quality, educational achievement, wildlife and economic prosperity, to give a broad overview of whether better quality of life is being achieved now and for future generations.
Acronym for 'Quasi-Autonomous Non Governmental Organisation', sometimes referred to as a non-departmental public body. Quangos are part of national government but operate at arm's length from government departments. Examples include the Housing Corporation, the Audit Commission, the Health & Safety Executive, and English Partnerships.
Quick Wins:
A term used in the regeneration sector to refer to relatively cheap and easy initiatives that can be quickly implemented in an attempt to secure community support for a regeneration scheme.
Quirk Review:
The report is about community management and ownership of assets by Barry Quirk, Chief Executive of Lewisham Council. The Government accepted fully the findings and introduced a delivery p

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Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000:
Attempts to deal with racism in the public sector by forcing bodies such as councils, hospitals and schools to take steps to promote good race relations.
Upgrading an area through social, physical and economic improvements
Regional Assembly / Chambers:
Regional chambers have been established in each of the eight English regions (outside London), consisting of representatives from local authorities and other sectors. Their role is to support RDAs' regional economic strategies. www.regions.odpm.gov.uk/chambers/
Regional Coordination Unit (RCU):
National headquarters of the Government Office in the Regions, the RCU was formed to ensure that a range of government programmes are delivered coherently at a local and regional level. RCU is within the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister.
Regional Development Agencies:
These are the nine Government agencies set up in 1999. To co-ordinate regional economic development and regeneration, enable the English regions to improve their relative competitiveness and reduce the imbalances that exists within and between regions. www.local-regions.odpm.gov.uk/rda/info/
England has nine official government administrative regions: North East, North West, Yorkshire and Humberside, East and West Midlands, East of England, South-West, South-East and London.
Registered Social Landlords:
Landlords of social housing that are registered with the Housing Corporation. Most are housing associations but they also include trusts, co-operatives and companies.
The Respect drive is about helping to foster greater mutual respect throughout society. the Government's Respect Task Force is Home Office led but the programme is joined up right across Government and Communities and Local Government plays a prominent role. Respect is fundamental to functioning communities and places. It is basically about decent standards of ebhaviour, taking personal responsibility and showing consideration for others. Selfish, anti-social behaviour is the most striking manifestation of a breakdown in respect.
Residents' Consultancy:
Residents with experience of effective community based regeneration and neighbourhood renewal acting as consultants to other residents seeking to tackle similar problems in order to share good practice and experience.
Ring Fencing:
The Government's practice of earmarking for national priorities parts of the funding it gives to organisations such as councils and hospitals effectively telling those organisations how to spend some of the money.

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Secondary Care:
Care provided by hospitals – as opposed to Primary Care provide by GPs.
Section 106 agreements (s.75 in Scotland):
Negotiated agreements to provide, for example, low cost housing or community facilities in return for the granting of planning permission.
These are the different 'interest groupings' that people and groups are divided into for consultation, funding and planning purposes. The three broadest sectors, that are used most often, are the private, public and voluntary/third sectors. (See also third sector).
Sensitivity analysis:
An analysis of the effects of varying the projected values of variables, egg different values might be given for unemployment rates to project the effect of the differences on a local economy
Term used to describe a government (local, regional or national) department that does not work effectively with other parts of the organisation and outside service providers. Thought to reduce organisational effectiveness and is the enemy of 'joined up' government.
Skills Base:
This is the level of people's skills and abilities. It may refer to people within one Organisation, or working in a particular trade or living in a certain area. 'Upgrading the skills base' is about making people or Organisations more able to do the things they want to do. 'Capacity building' is another phrase for this.
SME ­ Small to Medium Enterprises:
Defined in relation to the number of employees (not more than 250), the turnover (not greater than 40M or balance sheet total no more than 27M) and its ownership (not more than 25% owned by one or more companies not meeting criteria) Small company is one with no more than 50 employees, turnover not exceeding 7M or balance sheet of not more than 5M. Ownership as above.
Small Business Service (SBS):
The SBS is an agency of the UK's Department of Trade and Industry. It champions the interests of small businesses, including representation to Government.
Social Capital: :
An idea most associated with sociologist Robert Putnam. It is used to represent the value people get out of relationships between them. Exchanging ideas, sharing resources and supporting each other's concerns are some of the ways in which social capital is produced. It is thought that social capital increases and becomes more sophisticated when networks have communication with each other.
The UK Government has formally adopted the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's definition of social capital: 'networks together with shared norms, values and understandings that facilitate co-operation within or among groups.'
In particular, social capital involves building 'bonds' and 'bridges' between people as a foundation for social support and community relationships (Putnam, 2000). Effective community involvement, especially horizontal involvement and networking, are key elements in the building of social capital.
Social Enterprise:
A business that trades primarily to achieve social aims, while making a profit. Social aims might include job creation, training and provision of local services. They are organised along democratic lines, with service users having full say in the direction of the business. Credit Unions are examples of banking social enterprises.
Social Enterprise Unit (SenU):
Government body located at the Department of Trade and Industry. Acts as a focal point and coordinator for policy making affecting social enterprise and promotes and champions social enterprise. Addresses barriers to growth of social enterprises, and identifies and spreads good practice.
Social Entrepreneurs:
The equivalent of business entrepreneurs, but operating in the social, not-for profit sector. They aim to seek new and innovative solutions to social problems.
Social Exclusion:
Left out of society, or prevented from entering into it, or alienated. The Government has defined social exclusion as being a shorthand label for what can happen when individuals or areas suffer from a combination of linked problems such as unemployment, poor skills, low incomes, poor housing, high crime environments, bad health and family breakdown. It can also have a wider meaning which encompasses the exclusion of people from the normal exchanges, practices and rights of society. www.socialexclusionunit.gov.uk/
Social Exclusion Unit (SEU):
Set up in 1997 to help reduce social exclusion by producing 'joined up solutions to joined up problems'. The SEU works with government departments to research implement and promote policies that tackle social exclusion and poverty.
Social Housing:
Housing which is not privately owned, but rented from a Housing Association, Trust or local authority.
Social Regeneration:
Process of tackling the social problems that lead to deprivation, such as crime and drugs. The process is different from physical regeneration, which tackles run-down buildings and communal areas, and economic regeneration, which is aimed at creating jobs and wealth.
Sport Action Zones:
A series of areas in which sport is used to reduce social exclusion and promote community development and regeneration. www.sportengland.org/activecommunities/acf/sport_action_zone. htm
A group or individual with an interest in an initiative, project ore activity and its outcomes
'Statutory' is a term that is used in two ways. Statutory Organisations are a phrase used to describe some public bodies that provide statutory services. Health authorities, local authorities and the police, for example, are statutory Organisations, public bodies providing statutory services. Statutory services are services that must be provided as a result of legislation by 'statute'. Only some of the services or functions provided by statutory Organisations, therefore, are statutory services. The other services that public bodies provide are called 'discretionary' services they don't have to provide them, but they do. Examples of discretionary services include alternative therapy, welfare rights advice or community police. Wirral Borough Council and the national Government are statutory Organisations. So, too, are some quangos. 'Quango' stands for 'Quasi Autonomous Non-Governmental Organisation'. That means, a public body that is appointed or set up by the Government that is not a Government Department or Committee. Some of the functions carried out by quangos are statutory. Quangos are also referred to as NDPB's. That stands for Non-Departmental Public Bodies.
Statutory Authority:
An organisation that is required by law to provide public services and receives central or local government funding, for example health authorities and local authorities.
Statutory Services:
Refers to services provided by the local authority as a matter of course. Examples of statutory services include social services provision.
Strategic Funding:
Funding that takes into account the broader aims and needs of the funder over and above specific prescribed areas of activity (which may be more suited to project funding). It enables government to ensure that capacity exists, and assists longer term planning, within the sector. It also takes account of the objectives of the funded organisation and its need to operate efficiently and effectively. In this way funding is used to support the core operational activities of an organisation. This type of funding should overcome the difficulties associated with more conventional core funding, where support was often too unspecific for any progress to be identified. (See Development Funding and Project Funding).
Street Warden Scheme:
Provide highly visible uniformed patrols in town and village centres, public areas and neighbourhoods. Street Wardens are similar to Neighbourhood Wardens, but their emphasis will be on caring for the physical appearance of the area, tackling environmental problems such as litter, graffiti and dog fouling and helping to deter anti-social behaviour; reduce the fear of crime; and foster social inclusion. www.neighbourhood.gov.uk/page.asp?id=567
Strengthened Communities:
Communities that are able to form and sustain their own organisations, and to bring people together to deal with their common concerns. They are one of three key elements of civil renewal. (See civil renewal, active citizenship, partnership in meeting public needs, community engagement).
Subsidiarity means making decisions as close to community level as possible a 'grass roots' approach to decision making. (This is sometimes referred to as 'devolving' decisions, too). Subsidiarity does not just apply to decisions at grass roots level, however. It is also used in relation to national Government and the EU. Then it means decisions are made by national Governments rather than the EU.
This happens where a firm substitutes one activity for a similar activity, eg. recruiting a different job applicant, in order to take advantage of public sector assistance.
Sure Start: :
A government scheme which aims to improve the health and well-being of families and children before and from birth, so children are ready to flourish when they go to school by setting up local Sure Start programmes to improve services for families with children under four and spreading good practice learned from local programmes to everyone involved in providing services for young children. www.surestart.gov.uk
Sustainability refers to the ability of something to keep going. It relates to the long-term effects of our actions, rather than the short term. It applies to everything we do. Many different funders now look at the sustainability of a project that is applying for funds. For example, take a project to develop a village hall. Some of the many questions that relate to the project's sustainability include: Does the project meet local needs? Can the project adapt, if those needs change? If local people are using the project, are they involved in making decisions about it? How will the project be managed in the long term? Do local people have the skills needed to manage the project? How will the project continue to meet its running costs? What impact does the project have on the environment (heat, lighting and waste, for example)? How does the project fit in with other projects in the area? Many of these things will seem obvious, but they all relate to the project's sustainability.
Sustainable Communities Programme:
A three year partnership between EnCams, Forward Scotland and the Sustainable Northern Ireland Programme which is testing ways in which communities can be supported to improve the quality of life in their neighbourhood. The programme aims to increase understanding of how people can become more involved in sustainable development at a local level, including how to balance social, economic and environmental demands. www.encams.org
Sustainable Development: :
An approach to world development that aims to allow economic growth without damaging the environment or natural resources. The Government has produced a strategy for ensuring sustainable development in the UK.
Synergy: :
Added value arising from the working together of two or more organisations.

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Tertiary Care:
Care provided by specialist hospitals or departments (e.g. cancer centres) for patients referred from district hospitals.
Third Sector:
Third sector is an umbrella term, used to describe voluntary and community groups as a whole. Basically, third sector includes all those organisations that are not private or public sector. (Some of these are not always included when people think of the voluntary sector, such as not-for-profit companies and co-operatives).
Town Centre Managers:
Manage the public realm of town centres so that they are attractive, safe and accessible to all. They work towards improving the competitiveness and image of towns and cities and organise partnerships between businesses, local authorities and the community.
Towns and Cities:
Partners in Urban Renaissance initiative: A scheme involving 24 partner towns in England, organised by the ODPM's Urban Policy Unit and URBED which aims to identify ways to bring aboutpositive change in inner city areas (sometimes called the Working with Towns and Cities Initiative). www.urban.odpm.gov.uk/whitepaper/towncity
Travel Plans:
Package of measures to promote and encourage sustainable travel behaviour. A School Travel Plan is a package of promotional and awareness raising measures to encourage travel to school by walking, cycling and public transport.
A trustee is a person who holds money or other property on a trust for the benefit of someone other than himself or herself. For example, the members of the management committee of a charitable unincorporated association are trustees since they hold the association's property on a trust. The directors of a charitable company, however, are not trustees since they do not hold the company's property on a trust. The term is commonly used in the voluntary and community sector to mean the same as a charity trustee. (See charity trustee).
Two Tier Local Government:
A system under which county and district councils work together to deliver the full range of local government services. Generally, the smaller district councils tackle issues such as housing and tourism, while their large county council delivers in areas such as education and social services.

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Unitary Council:
A local authority that delivers the full range of local government services itself, rather than splitting them between county and district councils. Usually covers urban or other built up areas.
Urban Forum:
An umbrella body for community and voluntary groups with interests in urban and regional policy, especially regeneration. www.urbanforum.org.uk
Urban Regeneration Companies:
Not-for-profit companies being set up by local authorities, Regional Development Agencies English Partnerships and other partners to promote development in less prosperous area of English cities by engaging businesses in agreed physical and economic regeneration strategies
Urban Village:
Part of an urban area which is has an attractive mix of homes, shops, restaurants, employers and which attracts people to live and work there.

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VCS Infrastructure:
Voluntary and Community Infrastructure Organisations are those that play a supporting, co-ordinating, representative, policy making and developmental role for other voluntary and community organisations. (Voluntary and Community Sector Infrastructure: A Consultation Document)
Venture Capital:
Business development finance whereby a portion of equity is sold for an investment in the business.
Value for Money.
Vocational Training:
Specialised training to give people the skills they need for specific areas of work (the business sector or engineering, for example). The European definition of vocational training is a fairly wide one. The European Union encourages training that is flexible and of use throughout an individual's working life. It will normally only fund training which results in a recognised qualification.
Voluntary and Community Sector (VCS):
Commonly used term encompassing both the voluntary sector and the community sector. (See separate definitions for the voluntary sector and the community sector).
Voluntary Sector:
The community sector differs from the voluntary sector, which is defined as: 'groups whose activities are carried out other than for profit but which are not public or local authorities. These organisations would normally be formally constituted and employ paid professional and administrative staff. They may or may not use volunteer help. (See also Formal volunteering, Informal volunteering and Volunteer Involving Organisation). (Community Development Foundation)
A person who spends time, unpaid, doing something that aims to benefit the environment or people either individual or groups other than, or in addition to close relatives.
Volunteer Involving Organisation:
The common term used for Voluntary and Community Sector organisations that involve or work with volunteers.

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White Paper:
Statement of policy issued by the government. White papers often form the basis of new legislation, and are usually preceded by a consultative green paper.
World Health Organisation.
Reducing worklessness is one of the Government's Floor Targets. It has a wider definition than unemployment as it includes addressing issues such as long-term sickness which take people out of the working population altogether (and who are therefore not registered as unemployed). Reducing worklessness means helping these people to be in a position where they can enter employment again.

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Youth Forums: :
These forums aim to support the involvement of young people in the local Community Planning processes.
Youth Inclusion Programme: :
Intensive supervision programme for young people most at risk of re-offending
Youth Offending Team:
Multi agency partnership working to prevent offending and re-offending by young people

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Jargon Buster (2003) from www.renewal.net

Annex 4 Acronyms, Abbreviations and jargon buster from Health & Neighbourhood Renewal: Guidance from the DoH & NRU 2002

Together We Can website Glossary (2005)

Jargon Buster (Wirral County Council)

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